NOTES

  1. See Appendix 1: Literature Suggestive of Human / ETI Contact in Ancient Times.
  2. These spectral types are very numerous and have long lifetimes - 10 billion years or more.
  3. Note that energy production in this society has been by means of conversion of fossil fuel, hydroelectric processes, tapping wind and solar energy, and by nuclear power generation. In other words, taking energy where it can be found in the macroscopic physical world as well as the atomic nucleus. But some physicists even now speculate on the possibility of tapping the truly enormous zero point energy.
  4. They could be called conjugates of each other.
  5. Interestingly, by relaxing the definition of the pulse-type beacon, they were describing the radiation characteristic of an as-yet unknown astronomical object: the pulsar. When one of these was eventually detected, it was at first taken to be an artificial ETI beacon.
  6. Excellent technical reviews of search strategies are given by Seeger (1977a,b) and Oliver (1977).
  7. Technical details of both searches are described in .(Dick, 1993)
  8. Effective Isotropic Radiated Power - the power required of a transmitter that radiates equally well in all directions, in order to deliver a certain amount of power at the aperture of our receiving antenna. This is a function of the actual radiating pattern of the transmitter (unknown to us) and its assumed distance from us.
  9. The question of whether any positive finding would be announced is perhaps outside the scope of this paper. There exists a Declaration of Principles which defines actions to be taken following a detection (SETI Committee of the International Academy of Astronautics, 1991). The Declaration outlines procedures for disseminating information first to the research community to enable independent verification, and finally to the general public once verification had been achieved. It has been endorsed by several international non-governmental scientific and space organizations. NASA certainly appears to support it.
  10. Placing a crew into a state of hibernation for arbitrarily long periods has been amply treated in science fiction, but recent studies (see Forced hibernation could save human lives) indicate that humans do possess a mechanism for entering hibernation. The point is not that we would necessarily wish to do this, although we might, but that it CAN BE DONE and somebody else might be doing it.
  11. A technology to support such travel has been proposed by Alcubierre (1994) . It would be accomplished by distorting the local space-time metric in the region of a spaceship so as to achieve motion faster than the speed of light as seen by observers outside the disturbed region. Hal Puthoff (1996,1997,1998,2002) elaborates on the proposal with a discussion of metric engineering, whereby the speed of light in free space c is changed by modifying the magnetic permeability and dielectric permittivity of the vacuum.

    Although achieving such "engineered metric/vacuum-energy effects" would require the availability of what for us at the moment would be "exotic" materials, the work of Alcubierre and Puthoff at least shows that travel at speeds exceeding the conventional speed of light would not require the violation of fundamental physical laws.

  12. Optical SETI (OSETI) represents a significant departure from the traditional SETI view. Championed several years ago by Dr. Stuart A. Kingsley (The Columbus Optical SETI Observatory), OSETI is increasingly accepted by SETI as a legitimate paradigm, and the annual OSETI conferences sponsored by The International Society For Optical Engineering (SPIE) features presentations by leading SETI and OSETI researchers who seem to get along quite well together. See, for example, SPIE Proceedings on Optical SETI-III.

    A new optical search facility -- this one designed to detect nanosecond light pulses -- was brought online in April 2006 at Harvard University's Oak Ridge Observatory.

    The rationale for this search seems to be twofold:

    1. We can do it now. We didn't have the technology before.
    2. All the radio searches have failed.

    Point No. 2 leads the facility's champion Monte Ross (2006) to conclude: "If E.T. is trying to talk to us, he's probably beaming light our way, not radio waves."

  13. Numerous papers describing such findings can be found at Cosmic Ancestry.
  14. If science could recognize that it is actually constructing a myth and that its grasp of any absolute reality is formally not unlike that of prescientific societies, it might be more inclined to see the myths of those societies as possible mines of information that could add to our understanding of nature and our surroundings. This has actually just begun to be attempted by a few courageous researchers. Very much to the point of this paper, for example, is the work of anthopologist Jeremy Narby (1998) who, provisionally accepting the information held by South American tribes pertaining to "cosmic serpents" that come from the sky, found correlations leading to astonishing insights into what may be a cosmic origin of the DNA molecule. (More on this in Appendix 2)
  15. It could be argued that Oliver's influential support of the monochromatic signal search paradigm served to distract most interested persons from consideration of pulses, let alone pulsars.
  16. In standard terminology, the time-averaged pulse profile is called the integrated pulse profile. Individual pulses are called subpulses.

    We use LaViolette’s terminology.

  17. A search of 2500 nearby stars for very short optical pulses is being planned and developed for UC Berkeley's Leuschner Observatory. And the latest SETI@Home screensaver now includes a scan for a form of pulsing signal. It is not clear how these searches were rationalized in view of SETI's bias in favor of monochromatic searches. Berkeley is also searching for continuous laser signals.
  18. SETI@home's participant base has outstripped the capacity of the Arecibo acquisition system to provide data. This puts SETI@home in a quandary. Should they (1) grow their collection system to match their ability to process data, and thus cover their search space more rapidly or cover a wider search space, or (2) put limits on the number of participants they will have in the program, or (3) allow their participant base to grow as it will and just be coy about whether they are feeding it new or recycled data?

    Clearly, choice (1) would be in line with the avowed SETI goals. However, in the past, they have executed choice (3). They are considering (2) or (3) for the near future.

    An analysis and revealing story can be found at FullOn3D Opinionated, a forum devoted to a computing initiative known as 3DNow!.

  19. "Communication with Extraterrestrial Intelligence", a conference held at the Byurakan Astrophysical Observatory, Yerevan, USSR, Sept. 5-11, 1971, sponsored by the U.S. National Academy of Sciences and Akademiia nauk SSSR. Sagan was reporting on a discussion that took place between Freeman Dyson, Thomas Gold, Barney Oliver, Marvin Minsky, Burke, Ginzburg, Sagan, Kardashev, Ozernoy, Francis Crick, Platt, Phillip Morrison, Lee, and Marx.
  20. While they have no findings from their own instruments, SETI researchers are encouraged by recent discoveries of extra-solar planetary systems, possible micro-fossils of extraterrestrial organisms, the ability of terrestrial organisms to exist under conditions previously thought hostile to life, and the possible past or present conditions on other planetary bodies that might support life. These findings argue for the wider existence of life than had been expected earlier, and thus raise hopes for an eventual signal detection, researchers feel, if they can only keep the faith and stay the course.
  21. The Giggle Factor. Usually accompanied by laughter in a context that does not appear at all funny. Manifested by SETI scientists and the nightly news team upon any mention of actual ETI contact. Psychiatrists call this a defense mechanism. It is used in place of substantive discussion.

    Sigmund Freud wrote, "Humor is a defense mechanism that allows people to face difficult situations without being overwhelmed."

    See the song Little Green Man by H. Paul Shuch, Ph.D., Executive Director of The SETI League, SETI humorist.

  22. The concepts discussed in this section are taken from the article "The Universe's Unseen Dimensions" by Nima Arkani-Hamed, Savas Dimopoulos, and Georgi Dvali. The article appeared in Scientific American, August 2000. It goes much more deeply into the subject.

    See also online archived lectures by Dimopoulos and Dvali.

  23. Forward's paper was submitted as an essay to the Gravity Research Foundation (and received an award). The Gravity Research Foundation solicits essays on the subject of gravitation, and pays small monetary awards for them, or gives "Honorary Mention". However, the Foundation does not appear to republish submitted essays.
  24. In the Open SETI page Quest for Negadata! I show that--at least where SETI is concerned--scientists casually toss aside their vaunted core principles of falsifiable hypotheses and rigorous testing when it suits them to do so.

    But what of the other mainstay of the institution of science: the screening of publications through the process of peer review?

    David F. Horrobin, in his article Something Rotten at the Core of Science? (2001), reports on a recent evaluation of the peer review process by evaluating the reviews of papers, abstracts, and oral presentations submitted to two neuroscience journals. An analysis of variance showed that 1) for the papers, the relationships among the reviewers opinions were no better or little better than chance, and 2) for the meeting abstracts, the content of the abstract accounted for only about 10 to 20 percent of the variance in opinion of referees. Horrobin concludes that, "Far from filtering out junk science, peer review may be blocking the flow of innovation and corrupting public support of science."

    Furthermore, "most published research findings are false." John P. A. Ioannidis (2005), whose finding appears to be true, explains why.

    For all of these reasons and others stated throughout this Open SETI website, I don't think the institution of science is qualified to set the rules for conducting SETI.

  25. In October 2000, William Dembski was relieved of his post as director of the Michael Polanyi Center at Baylor University, a Baptist institution located in Waco, Texas. In fact, the Center, which had been devoted to the development of mathematical methods for detecting intelligent design, was more or less dissolved out from under him.

    The story of how this came about (see "The Lynching of Bill Dembski" by Fred Heeren, UFO Magazine, April-May 2001) abounds with ironies. It would appear that Dembski offended the University faculty not by being too liberal in his views, but because of his thinly-concealed fundamentalist aims that could ultimately prove embarrassing to the University.

  26. The "Face" as artifact has been discredited in recent years as a result of the natural-looking appearance of more recent imaging released by NASA/JPL. However, it appears that NASA made some unusual choices in processing those images that tended to remove the very shading responsible for the uncanny human features seen in the original Viking images. On the other hand, those promoting the hypothesis of artificiality may be overstepping objectivity in their zeal. But regardless of that, their willingness to consider unconventional possibilities is exactly what is called for by the Open SETI approach.
  27. Our society suffers from a massive lack of objectivity in the media on which it depends for knowledge and understanding of its world. This problem is masterfully presented by Terry Hansen in his recent book, The Missing Times (2001). Hansen shows how the media beginning in World War I have cooperated with government intelligence services to implement censorship and propaganda programs--programs that continued to deepen their infiltration and strengthen their control of public information down to the present day.

    Hansen's book is particularly concerned with "the UFO cover-up"--a subject closely related to our Open SETI topic, as media treatment of the SETI subject would naturally be seen as significant to those who manage public information about UFOs.

    Hansen's 1995 article, The Psychology of Dreamland, presents a highly condensed review of the UFO field from Roswell up to that time with particular emphasis on military and government involvement and suppression of information.

    Readers who believe there is no "cover-up" may have their confidence shaken by Hansen's information.

  28. ...although, when convenient, SETI seems to forget about its tiresome models. I will draw attention to these lapses later on these pages. No one else does. It is this lack of rational analysis and debate that belies SETI's claim to be a scientific approach.
  29. See APPENDIX 2: Challenges to Darwinism: Intelligent Design, Panspermia, and Evolutionary Metamorphosis. The arguments presented in this appendix strongly refute the notion that life on any particular place must and does develop independently. While not providing a means of direct contact between intelligent societies, it greatly improves the likelihood that intelligent societies communicate because they would be much more likely to spring up in any habitable place, and they would have common characteristics springing from their common genetics. Specifically, our human form has lived on many planets over timespans of billions of years or more.
  30. [Jan 2011 Note: The links from this section to Research Institute on Anomalous Phenomena are temporarily out of service at the geocities server. As they are under construction and will return, we are maintaining them and will make any changes or updates as needed. In the meantime, Dr. Rubtsov refers interested persons to his Tunguska site, drawing attention to the tab PDF Store, where some RIAP publications can be found.]

    Those wishing to acquaint themselves with the best available published studies of the UFO mystery could begin by browsing the Internet sites of the few serious research organizations in the field. RIAPNotable among them is the Research Institute on Anomalous Phenomena (RIAP), located in Kharkiv (Kharkov), Ukraine. I consider RIAP to be one of the very few professional-level research organizations studying the UFO mystery and related anomalies. In fact, it would be difficult to think of another one. That it is based in an Eastern European state is probably no accident, as the region has historically had a reduced level of stigma attached to the study of anomalistics, compared with the West.

    Thus the Institute benefits from the support of numerous distinguished Russian and Ukrainian scientists, complemented by well-known Western scientists, scholars, and engineers.

    The Institute's English-language RIAP Bulletin reflects the international scope of anomalies, enigmas, Fortean phenomena, recent and historical UFO activities, SETI, and "paleo-visitology", its favored term for evidence of truly ancient extraterrestrial contacts with human society. Each issue offers access to data that are often new even to readers seasoned in the field. This, and the consistent high quality of reporting and analysis, make the RIAP Bulletin an indispensable resource for any researcher.

    The Bulletin includes a valuable short list of selected links to additional research-quality websites dealing with UFOs and other anomalies.

    Dr. Rubtsov extends his research to modern times with the publication of his new book The Tunguska Mystery (Rubtsov 2009).

    Click here for a short leaflet from Dr. Rubtsov with information about the book.

    The Coalition for Freedom of Information (CFi) is dedicated to...

    "Achieving scientific, congressional and media credibility for the study of unexplained aerial phenomena while working for the release of official information and physical evidence."
    Formed only in 2002, CFi has made major progress toward each of these goals:

    • Hosted a scientific symposium at George Washington University
    • Sought Congressional cooperation in sponsoring hearings and government inquiries
    • Formed an alliance with a major cable TV channel
    • Employed the Freedom of Information Act to "reopen" investigations into the 1965 Kecksburg, PA crash event
    • Staged a media information event at the national press club

    See the CFi website for current information about this organization's activities.

    Note: Elsewhere on the Open SETI pages, I have made sweeping condemnations of the way in which the scientific establishment approaches frontier issues such as that of ETI contact, and I go so far as to declare that "science" has disqualified itself to deal with the subject through its mishandling of it. Obviously, those organizations with the courage to confront the problem of ETI contact openly, forthrightly, and employing sound logic and principles, are quite another matter. One might say that these organizations are holding to scientific ideals that have been abandoned by the mainstream, and thus they are deserving of respect.

  31. Sagan throughout his career applied Shklovsky's principle to all instances of possible indications of ETI activity. This had the effect of delaying and denying acceptance of an ETI explanation as long as there was even one natural explanation that could not be completely eliminated, to his satisfaction. This is the classic debunker at work, and by playing on his own public recognition as a "scientist", Sagan blocked the common person's access to some remarkable possibilities.

  32. The rationale for SETI requires that interstellar travel be impossible, so SETI attempts to quash all questioning of this point. Its reason for doing so, then, appears to be less science than self-preservation. Yet SETI is beginning to create fallback positions. These are discussed later in the Open SETI pages.
  33. The issue of SETI's status as a science from the perspective of the philosophies of Karl Popper and Paul Feyerabend was explored by RPI graduate student Arthur C. Fricke (2001) at OSETI III.

    Fricke's thesis research is concerned with the psycho-sociology of SETI, which happens to be a major theme of Open SETI.

  34. Chris Boyce (1979) suggested that probes might consist of universal von Neumann self-replicators, referring to a theory developed by the mathematician John von Neumann. Endowed with human intelligence, these von Neumann probes would increase exponentially in number, and colonize the Galaxy.
  35. Broadband radiation emitted by electrons traveling at relativistic speeds (or high-energy cosmic ray particles) when deflected by a magnetic field. Radiation is confined to a narrow conical beam in the particles' direction of travel.
  36. Joseph, as do others, eschews the Big Bang, reviewing this issue in his Chapter 1.

    The bedrock principle of cosmology is the redshift-distance relationship deduced from the Hubble redshift-brightness relationship. That relationship is controverted by ample evidence, and it continues to be supported only through selective manipulation of data and scientific publication. Because, as with natural selection, too much is at stake if the principle fails.

    This subject merits a page on this website. The goal is for Open SETI to contain all the resources needed to overturn the classical SETI picture. Meanwhile, here is Tom Van Flandern's review of Halton Arp's Seeing Red. While you're looking at these two links, you might check out The Electric-Cosmos.org.

    Also see Arp (1993).

    A January 10, 2005 UCSD News Release, Discovery By UCSD Astronomers Poses A Cosmic Puzzle: Can A 'Distant' Quasar Lie Within A Nearby Galaxy? reports the finding of a quasar close to the nucleus of nearby spiral galaxy NGC 7319, while exhibiting a typical "high redshift" spectrum conventionally thought to rank it among the fastest receding objects in the universe, billions of light years away.

    The discovery was reported by noted astronomer E. Margaret Burbidge, who with her equally notable astronomer-spouse Geoffrey Burbidge, are part of the team whose findings were presented at the January 2005 meeting of the American Astronomical Society.

    “If this quasar is close by, its redshift cannot be due to the expansion of the universe,” commented Geoffrey Burbidge. “If this is the case, this discovery casts doubt on the whole idea that quasars are very far away and can be used to do cosmology.”

    And, we might add, this is only the latest of many findings of quasars associated with nearby galaxies, following Arp's original publication of this problem, which itself greatly undermines conventional cosmology.

    See the Burbidges' session abstract.

  37. This example has actually become controversial. The instrumentation used in the experiment is now known to have been too crude to detect the bending effect. The hastily-declared success had more to do with society's desire to idolize the escapee from Nazi Germany. Einstein himself was dismayed by the publicity that he received over this experiment.
  38. Specifically, the Drake Equation is formulated on a model in which a fraction of habitable planets give rise to civilizations that send signals, and these civilizations do so until they die, or stop for some reason. As will be explained, this is so simplistic a model as to be useless. See SETI Science (The Drake Equation).
  39. Paul Davies is Professor of Natural Philosophy at the Australian Center for Astrobiology, Macquarie University, Sydney.
  40. See Genome Deserts Yield DNA Gold.
  41. Kurzweil's essay would be accepted as leading edge thinking by leading SETI scientists. Yet he is leading in exactly the wrong direction. His view of evolution is antiquated even by current standards, to say nothing of the groundbreaking realizations reviewed in our Appendix 2. (See especially the discussion of Evolutionary Metamorphosis.)

    Kurzweil is not concerned with consciousness, but rather places all power in intelligence. When he observes that humans will be able to create machines more intelligent than themselves, he gives SETI all the ammunition it needs to make the claim that machines will be - must be - the colonizers of the universe.

    The basic problem with Kurzweil and SETI is that they do not understand what the human really is.

    Is this a cavalier accusation? Read this website and the one you will find underlying it, and then decide.

  42. See Appendix 4: A Remote Viewing Reading List and Timeline.
  43. For those who must have the absurdities:
    1. They are not supposed to be able to come.
    2. We have already transmitted messages.
    3. (Open SETI paradigm) How can they take us over if they are our likely progenitors?
  44. For those who must have the absurdities:
    1. We have never detected a signal of any kind, let alone one bearing information. The possibility of receiving not just information but information that would attack our systems is so remote as to represent nothing more than a science fiction fantasy designed to entertain the unwashed (i.e., the SETI community that supports nonsensical speculations such as this).
    2. The suggestion that we need to anticipate and protect against attack mechanisms is, if possible, even more absurd.
    3. Receivers are not subject to viruses.
    4. Computer viruses require intimate knowledge of our computer operating systems. If they had this, they would already be among us, not light years away sending signals.
    5. If we ever received and decoded a message, interpreting its true meaning would be the order of the day. This is absurdly trivial.
    6. {Shostak} If signal averaging revealed presence of a signal, we would increase the time resolution and continue to observe, to obtain more detail or any information.
  45. For an expanded discussion of War in Heaven, see War in Heaven / Notes. For a discussion of controllers, based on a synthesis of visionary insights, see A Synthetic Myth. For a Gnostic version, see Gnosticism, Archons/Greys, The Controller Agenda. The Jinn..
  46. S3ETI is closer to "UFOlogy" than its promoters would like to admit; it is, after all, an instrumented search for craft of unknown origin. The problem this presents for S3ETI (in fact, for all of SETV) is that a deep veil of secrecy has been placed around government activities connected with the UFO. Readers who would doubt the truth of that statement would do well to review UFOs and the National Security State (Dolan and Vallee, 2002). This well-researched history of government involvement in the UFO phenomenon from 1941-1973 (additional volumes may follow) leaves no doubt of the extreme sensitivity of this subject.

    A collection of followup essays by Richard Dolan can be found at Alien Essays.

    An excellent companion to this work is The Missing Times (Hansen 2001), focusing on the use of propaganda and censorship in the media to manipulate public information and opinion concerning the UFO.

  47. Take our own culture, for example. We know that our planet has had a bistable global climate system (temperate / ice age) for the last two million years. Superimposed on this cycle is a chaotic sequence of abrupt onsets of "little ice ages" and subsequent warming periods. Recent data indicate that the Earth's climate is approaching one of these abrupt changes, even possibly switching to its ice age mode, within our lifetimes. In fact, evidence suggests that the change has already begun. This event has the potential to at least challenge or even put an end to our technological civilization.

    Current information about this development may be found at the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution's Ocean and Climate Change Institute.

  48. Quoted in Professor Searches for Aliens, The Harvard Crimson Online, Monday, February 09, 2004.

    Dr. Tarter has been characterizing the "UFO" field as "garbage" for a good many years. She has now, after due consideration, refined and updated her assessment to "sexy garbage". This makes a nice symmetry with the extraterrestrial Ford Prefect's Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy report on human civilization after many years of cohabitation and close study: "Harmless". Fifteen years later he filed his substantially lengthened report: "Mostly harmless". (Space in the Guide for minor civilizations was somewhat limited.)

  49. Richard Dolan explores the role of military intelligence in Science, Secrecy, and Ufology.
  50. What about the use of intuition or mental faculties to learn about ETI, you may ask. In fact this could be a powerful tool and there is suggestion it may have been employed by no less than the National Security Agency. Take it as a fable or as a factual report of an NSA program to train intuitives to communicate with certain aliens. Above Black: Project Preserve Destiny (1998) is an extremely strange, interesting, and provocative narrative that should be read by any person interested in SETI or other approaches to communication. The author, Dan Sherman, presents his story as non-fiction. Reviews of this book have been mixed, with some complaining that there is no way to authenticate Sherman's claims. But that is to be expected. At least in terms of circumstantial detail, Sherman demonstrates intimate knowledge of NSA facilities and security procedures.
  51. Total manipulation leads to total disempowerment or, as Ingo Swann puts it, depowerment. See his books Secrets of Power for a treatise on depowerment and empowerment.
  52. T. T. Brown frequently made reference to a gravitational effect of electrostatic fields, and apparently demonstrated this effect, but he never provided a satisfactory explanation for it. I questioned Dr. LaViolette about this and asked him to contrast Brown's approach with his own. Here is an excerpt from our correspondence:

    GMZ: But did he ever present a theory as to why there is such a connection? SQK predicts the effect due to the role of gravitational etheron flux in the structure of subatomic particles. And I presume you developed that idea without recourse to Brown's experiments.

    PAL: Brown himself did not present a theory. But his colleagues attempted theories as well as people at the advanced studies institute set up by Martin Marietta in the 50's. They tried to tie it in with the existing framework of physics somehow through a modification of general relativity or such. In other words they had a phenomenon they were trying to explain and the logical place to begin was with established theories that were already in existence, but in their opinion needed modification. In my opinion a more radical departure is needed. In my case, prior to discovering Brown's work, I had already developed SQK through an extrapolation of systems principles, and had made a radical departure from standard physics, which presented a very different approach to understanding how fields exert forces on objects and cause them to move. It is virtually impossible to begin from standard physics and general relativity and make the jump to SQK. That is why earlier attempts to come up with an explanation of electrogravitics did not hit on developing subquantum kinetics. Electrogravitics had to wait until subquantum kinetics was formulated (through the extended application of general systems theory) before an adequate explanation could be given to the phenomenon.

  53. The SCAM: Society's Common Approved Myth.

    Its scope is cosmic. Its level of detail? An exercise for the reader. But it is not necessarily a judgment of "everything you know". Note the qualifiers: common and approved.

    To grasp The SCAM, one cultivates an attitude of skepticism. This is not a reference to the several "skeptics" organizations, which actually function as thought police, seeking to correct deviations from The SCAM.

  54. From a dialogue with Dan Drasin:

    "Dan Werthimer again: Think serendipity. We should all be looking for little glitches in our data."

    Aren't they already looking for those?

    Actually no. They are looking for predefined indications, namely excess power in a small number of frequency bins.

    I don't know what he means by glitches. The word means unexpected problems that interfere with smooth execution. (My own definition, but probably pretty close.) I just can't imagine what he is recommending people do, or look for.

    Ironically, Paul LaViolette as summarized on my pulsar page refers to "glitching" in pulsar signals":

    Period glitching in 21 pulsars including Crab, Vela

    Pulse periods grow at a uniform rate (as though spinning pulsar is slowing down), but occasionally the period abruptly changes to a smaller value (pulsar instantaneously assumes a higher rotation rate?) and the sequence continues from there, but relaxes over several weeks to the previous period.

    Why is this ironic? Because it is CALLED a glitch and in fact its cause is unexplained in the conventional pulsar models. And it is included in a list of things that should be examined as possible signs of ETI signalling. So would SETI look at this, even Dan Werthimer who says they should?
  55. Hotson's theory is reviewed by Douglass A. White (2004), whose Observer Physics itself appears to deserve review and eventual coverage on this Open SETI website.
  56. Courtesy KZUM. Recording courtesy Dan Drasin.
  57. Charles Hall has given blanket permission to quote his statements made to other researchers.
  58. Review Open SETI Physics 101 for some of the reasons why the paradigm of Open SETI does not support a fundamental limit on possible speeds.
  59. Still at it in 2005, Vakoch writes of a session, "Anthropology, Archaeology, and Interstellar Communication: Science and the Knowledge of Distant Worlds” held at the December 2004 annual meeting of the American Anthropological Association:
    "Will we ever find a primer for decoding messages from extraterrestrials? Last month, anthropologists who gathered for a major conference in Atlanta, Georgia heard some news that will be sobering for SETI enthusiasts: it may be much more difficult to understand extraterrestrials than many scientists have thought before."
    And we already know how difficult he thought it was before!

    Recommended reading: Gods, Genes, and Consciousness (Von Ward, 2004), Part VI: Development of Language.

    Vakoch was writing in The SETI Institute's Space.com for January 27, 2005.

    This Note illustrates the gulf separating the thinking of SETI science and Open SETI.

  60. Also see SETI Blinks?, an analysis by Bruce Cornet, Ph.D.
  61. From his essay What Has Science Come To? (Arp, 2000):
    "Of course, there is a questioning, exploring side to both science and religion, which in the beginning was vital to humanity, but what most people accept today as fundamental scientific knowledge is barely distinguishable from what organized religion became some centuries ago. The fatal part of the latter was dogma unsupported by replicable experiment. The most damaging aspect of science today is widely promulgated theories that are contradicted by observation and experiment. In both cases, a story is mandated by authority and then defended by educational, economic, and sociopolitical agencies."
  62. In March 2003, SETI@home began feeding to their users data collected on a 3-day reobservation of 166 "promising signals" from the past several years. (See the BBC News article ET Fails to 'phone home'.) That is, they collected new data at the same frequencies and pointing directions as before.

    Not a single instance proved significant on the second look.

  63. John Lash discusses the Gnostic concept of the Father God of Judeo-Christian religion, Jehovah, as...
    "...an Archon, an inferior deity not to be confused with the true Gods, called Aeons, who inhabit the cosmic center (galactic core?) Jehovah is said to be blind and mad, a demented alien who nevertheless has some god-like powers. Although he does not create the world we inhabit, he believes that he does. "Opening his eyes, the chief Archon saw a vast quantity of matter without limit, and he became arrogant, saying, 'It is I who am God, and there is no other power apart from me.' " (The Reality of the Archons). Of course, this is exactly what Yahweh-Jehovah says in the Old Testament. Over and over again, Gnosticism presents a view of Judeo-Christian religion that turns it completely inside out."
    See Abraham and the Doctrine of the Aliens.

    A pity that so many today still take Jehovah at his word, since they read it in "God's Book". The circularity escapes them.

    These topics are introduced on our page Gnosticism, Archons/Greys, The Controller Agenda. The Jinn.

  64. and are the central theme of our website The Ages of Uraš.

  65. Quantum entanglement may be vastly more "far-reaching" than we had supposed. For a review of important recent developments in our understanding of quantum entanglement see the New Scientist article Entanglement: The weirdest link.
  66. Control over the parameters of contact would be the key attribute of what Paul Von Ward defines as Advanced Beings. See the discussion of Paul Von Ward's Gods, Genes, and Consciousness (2004).
  67. Perform an Internet search on the combination of terms SETI salvation. The results are sobering.
  68. It is at least partly true. But it is also seriously flawed, in a way that goes to the heart of Open SETI. God is our own invention in a limited manner only. The ancient races of man knew who their creators were; they saw and interacted with them in the flesh, every single day. Those beings were only too content to be called "gods"; it suited them perfectly. After countless millennia, when they were forced to step back, the memory of one or two of them was left as "God" and elaborate theocratic machinery was constructed to enhance and preserve this. Today's theocratic power centers seek to keep the machinery oiled and functioning. For more on this subject discussed on this Open SETI website, click here. For more on this subject discussed on one of our sister websites, click here.
  69. Davies was quoting from Tarter's article SETI and the Religions of Extraterrestrials, (2000), in which she applies the SETI scientific method to the subject of extraterrestrial religions. That is, she uses the Drake Equation, just this one time ("which in fact I hardly ever use"), along with her observations of Earth's religions, to reach the following speculations: "If and when we ever get a message, it’s going to be a missionary appeal to try to convert us all. And, on the other hand, if we get a message and it’s secular in nature, I think that says that they have no organized religion—that they’ve outgrown it."

    Tarter's reasoning is loaded with unwarranted assumptions. A big one is the idea that religion is a natural stage in the development of intelligent species. And a state of delusion at that, as there is no "God". She bases her understanding of religion on what? On her observation of human history, an "n of 1", as scientists like to say.

    An important unwarranted assumption is that religion is what we are taught to believe it to be: a fervent, rapturous attachment that wants to be shared with all other beings. How many of us have considered the idea that religion is a tool for the control of the masses in order to accumulate power: political, military, economic power? If one is going to take human history for an example, one might as well do a thorough job and call a spade a spade.

    Now, since SETI believes the only intercourse that can take place between distant civilizations is via a few electromagnetic bleeps and blips, and in one direction only for eons of time before being heard and understood etc., you tell me how that would translate to the amassing of political, military, and economic power.

  70. We have perhaps too casually used the term "evolve", especially in the Ages of Uraš website, which in no way should be taken as support for the concepts of Darwinian evolution, a complete modern-day sham. See Challenges to Darwinism: Panspermia and Theories of Guided Evolution.
  71. Otto Krueger (2005) delves into the fine distinctions between posthumanism (to which Kurzweil's thinking belongs), transhumanism (ex: Leary), and Gnosticism in terms of its hatred of the physical, which is wrongly associated with the first two, which adore the physical and wish only to enhance it.